New Design Concepts for High Speed Air Transport

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The company is developing miles of new track. Damen Avenue at Lake Street transportation facility returns train access to neighborhood. Courtesy Port Canaveral. The privately owned and managed system could create new business districts for these cities. Courtesy Raleigh Union Station. Clearscapes and STV designed the adaptive reuse project. Courtesy of IBI Group.

Mississauga Bus Rapid Transit stations share common theme but sport custom details. Learn how to enable JavaScript on your browser. This book presents the challenges, the tools and the concepts for developing economically viable high speed civil transport aircraft under environmental constraints.

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Computational tools for aircraft design and optimization are outlined and application in an industrial environment is shown for new and innovative case studies. See All Customer Reviews. Shop Textbooks. Add to Wishlist. Emissions from a variety of human-generated sources, including commercial aircraft, trap heat in the atmosphere and contribute to climate change. During flight operations, aircraft emit a number of greenhouse gas and other emissions, including carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides NO 2 , soot, and water vapor.

Figure 2 shows the primary emissions from commercial aircraft. Carbon dioxide emissions from aircraft are a direct result of fuel hydrocarbons burning.

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Given the strong growth trends in air transportation, the aviation sector will increasingly become an important source of Green-House Gases GHGs and their impact on local air quality and global climate change is expected to increase in the future. Carbon Dioxide CO 2 emission has a strong relation with fuel consumption. There is a strong economic incentive to reduce fuel consumption in aviation. As a result of that, aircraft have become very efficient in their fuel consumption. New and innovative aviation technologies can make enormous improvements in emission control and reduction.


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Figure 2. Selected greenhouse gases and other emissions from aircraft at cruising altitude. Figure 3.

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According to EPA, in commercial aviation represented about 82 percent of all aviation emissions, and about 2. In the United States, military aviation represents less than 10 percent of total aviation emissions [9]. While scientific knowledge in this area continues to evolve and remains uncertain the total climate change impact of all aviation emissions is presently estimated to be at least two times greater than the effects of carbon dioxide alone. The estimated additional climate impacts of aviation are not the only reason to take a particular interest in emissions from this sector.

A second reason is that emissions from the aviation sector are forecast to grow significantly over time. A study by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [4], undertaken at the request of ICO, concluded in that aircraft are estimated to contribute about 3. Policy-making concerning aircraft emissions is being given increasing attention by States following the adoption in of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change UNFCC , which includes a provision that developed countries, working through the International Civil aviation organization ICAO [10], should pursue the limitation or reduction of greenhouse gases from aviation bunker fuels.

Accordingly, ICAO has been monitoring advances in technology and has been developing guidance material on operational measures to reduce emissions. ICAO also has been working on policy options to limit or reduce greenhouse gas emissions from civil aviation, including the potential role of market-based options such as emissions-related levies, emissions and voluntary agreements.

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In , IPCC released its report, Aviation and the Global Atmosphere, conducted at the request of the International Civil Aviation Organization [4]—a United Nations organization that aims to promote the establishment of international civilian aviation standards and recommended practices and procedures.

A variety of apex level Federal agencies have played proactive roles in addressing aviation emissions. According to some forecasts of the two largest manufactures for commercial aircrafts, the air transport system will experience growth rates of 4. Associated with this increase is an expected demand for up to 29, new airplanes in the same timeframe. As a result, the air traffic is projected to double within the next 15 years Figure 4.

The air transport system proved to be resilient to external crises surviving the oil crises of the s, two gulf wars, economic downfalls, the terrorist attacks of and large area epidemics like SARS in This increased impact is furthermore augmented by the fact that aircraft emissions occur in higher altitudes with more severe implications than ground level emission from other transportation sources. To account for this effect the radiactive forcing index RFI is being used by the aviation industry.

The RFI and the projected growth rates explain the major effect of the air transport system on. Figure 4. Growth in air traffic between and [12]. Because the majority of aircraft emissions are injected into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere typically 9 - 13 km in altitude , the resulting impacts are unique.

The fraction of these emissions that is relevant to atmospheric processes extends far beyond the radiative effects of CO 2. Thus, the impact of burning fossil fuels at altitude is approximately double that due to burning the same fuels at ground level. The enhanced forcing due to aircraft compared with ground-based sources is due to different physical and chemical e.

The balance Emissions of CO 2 and H 2 O are products of hydrocarbon fuel combustion and are thus directly related to the aircraft fuel consumption, which in turn is a function of the weight, aerodynamic design, and engine performance of the aircraft. These emissions are primarily controlled by the engine design, but the total emissions can be reduced through improvements in fuel efficiency and improved aircraft designing.

Internationally binding environmental standards for aircrafts are delineated in Annex 16 to the Convention on International Aviation. Annex 16 consists of Volume I and II, dealing with aircraft noise and aircraft engine emissions, respectively. In order to control local air quality in the vicinity of airports, in the ICAO adopted International emissions standards for HC unburned hydrocarbons, CO carbon monoxide , NO 2 oxides of nitrogen , and smoke from newly manufactured commercial jet engines.

These standards are based on the LTO cycle of an aircraft below m of altitude. A key outcome of the eight meeting of CAEP was the decision to begin working on a CO 2 standard that can be adopted by It is critical to distinguish between CO 2 and non-CO 2 effects of aviation activities on the atmosphere and assess the overall impact of aviation on climate change. For this, the IPCC used the concept of radiative forcing RF , which is a metric to measure the capacity of a greenhouse gas to alter the energy balance of the atmosphere.

In , the RF for global aviation was estimated to be 3. Green aviation by implication means improving fuel-use efficiency by improving Operational Efficiency and Aircraft designs; and minimizing all conceivable forms of wastes—including time-lag in between flight scheduling; in take-off as well as landing. About 98 years ago, the Wright brothers successfully made the first controlled, powered and sustained human flight. This innovative step has continued to stimulate changes in the aviation industry in the face of many challenges, with the main contemporary problem being climate change related.

Aircraft cruise differently, depending on factors such as airframe design, weight, range, weather conditions and the airspace they are flying in.

New Design Concepts for High Speed Air Transport / Edition 1

ATM can improve this process. High-tech engines, propeller efficiency, advanced aerodynamics, low-drag airframe and the resulting level of fuel saving have prompted many operators to select turboprops and specially ATR above all others. The proven level of low fuel consumption is a primary concern for airlines eager to lower cash operating cost and wishing to be environment friendly.

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Less fuel consumption generates less gaseous emissions, matching international recommendations and reducing environmental impact. A successful Green Approach starts already at the Top of Descent. The target is to use all potential energy of the aircraft and convert it to kinetic energy which keeps the aircraft flying during the descent. Descent planning is critical to balance energy versus the needed kinetic energy. Using sophisticated arrival management tools helps to ensure shortest possible and correct track distance.

In this case the aim is to allow all aircraft to descend uninterrupted from top of descent without using additional thrust, which burns fuel. Jet fuel is one of the highest cost items for an airline, and with the increasingly volatile price of oil, it has become a necessity for the industry to make fuel-efficient engines. Now, a new form of Air Traffic Management ATM is being introduced, with the aim of redesigning routes around the performance of the flight, managing the optimized use of airspace, and allowing computers to plot their own, most efficient, route. Furthermore, several airports have introduced fixed electrical power units which allow an aircraft to plug in while waiting at the gate instead of burning its engine fuel for power.

Zurich Airport has reportedly saved 30, tonnes of CO 2 per year through installing such units at its 50 gates.